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        Home History and Culture Facial Design
        Facial Design
        Learn Chinese - History and Culture

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        Chinese opera performers mainly have two methods of makeup: masks and facial painting. The frequent on-stage change of masks, without the audience noticing, is a special technique, known as changing faces (biàn liǎn 變臉). Opera facial painting falls into four main categories -- personality makeup (facial designs, painted faces or Lian Pu), decorative makeup (decorated faces), mood makeup (changing facial designs), and pictographic makeup (animal-like facial designs).

        Lian Pu

        Personality makeup, or Lian Pu (liǎn pǔ 臉譜), refers to facial designs for Jing and Chou roles. It originated from daily life experience, describing such changes of expression as white for fear, red for shyness, dark for suntan, and sallow for illness. Most facial designs attach great importance to the eyes and eyebrows. Lian Pu has formed a complete
        system, such as the facial designs of Peking Opera (jīng jù 京劇).

        Red, yellow, white, black, purple, green and silver are the main colors used for facial designs to represent different characters. For instance, red stands for loyal, courageous and upright people; white for

        sinister and cunning officials; and golden and silvery colors for gods and ghosts.
        The facial designs for the Jing roles are made by painting, powdering and coloring in the basic forms of Zheng Lian (keeping the basic face pattern), San Kuai Wa Lian (three-section face) and Sui Lian (fragmentary face). These types are widely used to represent generals, officials, heroes, gods and ghosts. The Chou actors (chǒu jué 丑角)?can be recognized by the patch of white in various shapes (cube, date pit or bat-shaped) painted around the eyes and nose. Sometimes these patches are outlined in black, hence the term Xiao Hua Lian (xiǎo huā liǎn 小花臉)?(partly painted face). The Chou roles fall into the following two categories: Wen Chou (wén chǒu 文丑)?(civil) and Wu Chou (wǔ chǒu 武丑)?(martial).


        京劇臉譜

        臉譜是京劇的一種表演手段,臉譜歷史很悠久。

        臉譜來源于生活:生活上常常形容人的臉色的變化,比如說:嚇得煞白,臊得通紅,曬得漆黑,生病的人形容臉色蠟黃等等。臉譜就是把這種夸張的說法,再用夸張的手法畫在臉上。用來描寫人物的正直、剛烈。常常畫紅臉,比如關羽。奸險狡詐之人如曹操,常畫白臉,而鐵面無私的包公形象則用黑臉來代表,等等。各種人物的臉譜有一定的規矩,這些在京劇中把臉上勾勒出形象,稱之為臉譜。臉譜是京劇的一種表演手段,臉譜歷史很悠久。
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